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Lowell Association for the Blind

 169 Merrimack Street, 2nd Floor
 Lowell, MA 01852
[P] (978) 4545704
[F] (978) 4585563
www.lowellassociationfortheblind.org
[email protected]
Elizabeth Cannon
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INCORPORATED: 1923
 Printable Profile (Summary / Full)
EIN 04-2199874

LAST UPDATED: 12/06/2017
Organization DBA --
Former Names --
Organization received a competitive grant from the Boston Foundation in the past five years No

Summary

Mission StatementMORE »

To support educate and nurture the blind and visually impaired of the Greater Merrimack Valley by assisting them in the enrichment of their lives and helping them to gain maximum independence.  To stimulate the interest and education of the general public to the problems and issues facing the blind and visually impaired as productive members of society seeking fulfillment of their human potential.

Mission Statement

To support educate and nurture the blind and visually impaired of the Greater Merrimack Valley by assisting them in the enrichment of their lives and helping them to gain maximum independence.  To stimulate the interest and education of the general public to the problems and issues facing the blind and visually impaired as productive members of society seeking fulfillment of their human potential.

FinancialsMORE »

Fiscal Year Jan 01, 2015 to Dec 31, 2015
Projected Income $339,788.00
Projected Expense $339,788.00

ProgramsMORE »

  • Adult Program
  • Radio Reading Service
  • Senior Teen Employment Program
  • Senior Youth Program
  • Visually Impaired Partners (VIP)
  • Youth Program

Revenue vs. Expense ($000s)

Expense Breakdown 2016 (%)

Expense Breakdown 2015 (%)

Expense Breakdown 2014 (%)

For more details regarding the organization's financial information, select the financial tab and review available comments.


Overview

Mission Statement

To support educate and nurture the blind and visually impaired of the Greater Merrimack Valley by assisting them in the enrichment of their lives and helping them to gain maximum independence.  To stimulate the interest and education of the general public to the problems and issues facing the blind and visually impaired as productive members of society seeking fulfillment of their human potential.

Background Statement

Lowell Association for the Blind (LAB) is the only nonprofit, community-based organization dedicated to working with the blind and visually impaired north of Boston. Established in 1923, the Lowell Association for the Blind was founded by the Middlesex Women’s Club to provide food and transportation to medical appointments for local blind residents. Since that time our services have evolved to meet the needs of clients of all ages with a variety of eye conditions.

LAB currently provides social,educational and recreational programming such as: Youth, Senior Youth and Adult Programs, College Awareness and Readiness Experience, the Visually Impaired Partners Program, a Radio Reading Service and Braille and computer training.

LAB is supported by contributions from the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind, the Talking Information Center, memorial donations, grants from foundations and program funding.

An office in downtown Lowell provides 3,000 square feet of handicapped-accessible space for meetings, adaptive-equipment training, Braille lessons, and a radio studio.

Impact Statement

Accomplished in 2016:
  1. Implemented a comprehensive Development Program by hiring and training a Development Director.
  2. Implemented a Senior Outreach Program funded through a grant from the Greater Lowell Community Foundation.

Goals for 2017:

  1. Identify funding for a computer training program for tablets and Smart Phones to connect the blind with friends and family.
  2. Identify funding for the Senior Teen Employment Program.
  3. Continue implementing Development Program to increase funding and awareness.


 
 

Needs Statement

Lowell Association for the Blind most pressing needs include:
  1. Keep up with changes in assistive technology for the blind/visually impaired.
  2. Provide blind individuals with independent living skills program in the Merrimack Valley.
  3. Reaching out to the community to identify volunteers to assist with programming.
  4. Expand fundraising and development to ensure the long term stability of the organization.
  

CEO Statement

 The Lowell Association for the Blind (LAB) is a multi service agency providing services to the blind/visually impaired in the Greater Merrimack Valley since 1923.  Currently in Massachusetts there are over 30,000 individuals registered as legally blind with the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind.  In the coming years, blindness is expected to double with the aging of the baby boomer generation with macular degeneration, cataracts and glaucoma. 

 As a community based organization we rely on many individuals, businesses and volunteers. In addition, we partner with many organizations such as the Massachusetts Audubon Society, Middlesex Community College,University of Massachusetts Lowell,  City of Lowell and the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind. We could not do it without them.

 Our clients are people of all ages and backgrounds from all over the Merrimack and the Nashoba Valley. I came to LAB over fifteen years ago and I am still inspired everyday! 
Elizabeth M. Cannon
Executive Director

 


Board Chair Statement

In June 2016, I assumed the position of President of the LAB Board of Directors. The Board is an active group of members of the community who share their time and talents with this wonderful organization. Our focus is to oversee the governance and the finances of the organization but our passion is to provide necessary services to the blind/visually impaired in the Greater Merrimack Valley. Our clients inspire our Board discussions and decisions. We often hear stories of clients that overcome great challenges to come to programs or to continue their education.  LAB clients range in age from 5-97 and have a wide variety of eye conditions. LAB offers a variety of programs and services to meet the needs of this population. Recently, LAB received a grant to begin a Women Helping Women Program as well as a grant to reach out to seniors dealing with low vision. The staff is constantly looking to provide services that our clients need whether it is our new Quilting for the Blind, technology training or independent living skills.

LAB has developed partnerships with the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Massachusetts Boston, the City of Lowell, and the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind to name a few in order to provide these services. Since we have been in continual operation in the City of Lowell since 1923 we receive broad support from individuals and local businesses. We could not do it without their continued support and the support of our many volunteers.

I am honored to be the President of this organization and look forward to see where we go from here.

Melanie St. Croix

President

Board of Directors

Lowell Association for the Blind



Geographic Area Served

In a specific U.S. city, cities, state(s) and/or region.
Northeast Massachusetts Region
NORTHEAST REGION, MA
Greater Merrimack, Nashoba Valley and Southern New Hampshire

Organization Categories

  1. Human Services - Blind/Visually Impaired Centers, Services
  2. -
  3. -

Independent research has been conducted on this organization's theory of change or on the effectiveness of this organization's program(s)

No

Programs

Adult Program

Social, recreational and educational program for blind/visually impaired adults.
Budget  $15,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Population Served People/Families with of People with Physical Disabilities Adults
Program Short-Term Success 
Encourages blind/visually impaired individuals to remain independent and meet others dealing with a similar disabilty.
Program Long-Term Success 
Provides opportunities for blind/visually impaired adults to learn about adaptive technology, meet others with similiar eye conditions and remain active in the community.
Program Success Monitored By 
Clients are surveyed for program suggestions and requests throughout the year.
Examples of Program Success  “Amazing when I think of how he was when he first starting coming to the LAB. Literally I remember bringing him there for the Valentine’s party and his head hanging low. He was so incredibly depressed. And though he misses his old seeing life and can still get sad if he has too much down time, he honestly loves coming to the LAB and missed it while he was at school. I feel like there are a lot of great services for blind people… but what he most benefits from is the experience of being with other people going through the same thing who let him show up sad or happy or whatever and just walk with him through the transitions. That’s been a great gift. “ -A recent unsolicited testimonial from the wife of a client

Radio Reading Service

Program provides daily reading of local newspapers and community information by volunteers. LAB is an affiliate of the Massachestts Radio Reading Network located in Marshfield, MA.  LAB broadcasts on a sub band of the University of Massachusetts Lowell radio station.  Clients received specialized receivers to listen to our broadcasts.
Budget  $45,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Population Served Elderly and/or Disabled People/Families with of People with Physical Disabilities People/Families with of People with Disabilities
Program Short-Term Success 
Blind/visually impaired individuals are informed on news in their communities.
Program Long-Term Success 
Blind/visually impaired individuals are informed and connected to their community.
Program Success Monitored By 
Blind/visually impaired listeners are surveyed bi-annually.
Examples of Program Success 
LAB provided 60 hours of local programming per month with 15-20 volunteers.  Clients listen to programming in their homes on specialized receivers or on the internet with live audio streamming. 
 
Clients often get to know the volunteer readers and call and inquire if they are  not in on a certain day. 
 
Recently one of our regular listeners called in and asked to speak to the volunteer reader to be able to get more information about a recenly read article. 

Senior Teen Employment Program

Provides pre-employment training for blind/visually impaired young adults, mentoring and internship placements. The program helps participants identify their skills while also learning new soft skills to enable them to become qualified candidates for employment.

Budget  $40,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years)
Program Short-Term Success 

90% of our participants have gone on to get internship placements in their various chosen career fields. Similarly, getting a job has helped boost their confidence and self-image.

Program Long-Term Success   

The Young adults learn to cope adequately with their daily challenges, stay gainfully employed, establish a work routine and develop positive work ethics.

Program Success Monitored By 

LAB monitors attendance and participation at programs. LAB also regularly checks in with their employers to monitor progress of participants.

Examples of Program Success 

We are excited to know that while our clients are progressing at their internship placements they also excel at school. Being able to balance their work and school life has been a huge success of the program. Also, the young adults recently volunteered their time to help members of the Billerica community through a local non-profit, Sunshine Girl’s Inc. They helped serve food to residents who needed a warm homemade meal and good company. The folks were delighted to see the teenagers move around serving coffee and meals with very little or no help. It was indeed a proud moment for us as the Sunshine Girls requested that the participants return to future events.


Senior Youth Program

Provides blind/visually impaired teens social, educational and recreational opportunities.
Budget  $10,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Population Served Adolescents Only (13-19 years) People/Families with of People with Physical Disabilities
Program Short-Term Success 
Many of our Youth Program participants transition to the Sr. Youth program at age 14. 
Program Long-Term Success 
Program provides age appropriate activities for teens that are blind/visually impaired. 
Program Success Monitored By 
LAB monitors program attendance, asks for teen input of program activities and takes suggestions from parents for activities.
Examples of Program Success 
Recently, LAB has teamed up with UMass Lowell and created a valuable relationship. In November, the UMass Lowell’s River Hawks hockey team volunteered to paint the LAB office. After finishing with helping out, the hockey team invited the Senior Youth Program to attend a game. The Senior Youth participants were given seats close to the ice for visual and handicapped purposes. All of the participants were excited to be so close to the action at such an enthusiastic game.

Visually Impaired Partners (VIP)

Visually Impaired Partners (VIP) is a site based mentoring program with  blind adults mentoring blind youth.
Budget  $20,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Population Served People/Families with of People with Physical Disabilities
Program Short-Term Success 
Youth and mentors have participated in program for more that one year.
Program Long-Term Success 
Mentor matches have been in place for 1 or more years.
Program Success Monitored By 
Program evaluation to be completed this year using the Mass Mentoring Program evaluation.
Examples of Program Success 

The Visually Impaired Partners (VIP) Program aims to complete a community service project quarterly. Pairs work as a team to create wonderful acts of kindness. In December, the VIP Program got together to create holiday centerpieces of Foster Kids of the Merrimack Valley. Both mentors and mentees were able to design and put together Christmas themed centerpieces using their senses (like fluffy cotton ball “snow,” or cinnamon scented pine cones). Participants were happy to be able to take part in making someone’s Christmas a little merrier while learning how fun, easy, and accessible volunteering can be.


Youth Program

Provides blind/visually impaired youth social, recreational and educational opportunities. 
Budget  $35,000.00
Category  Human Services, General/Other Children & Youth Services
Population Served People/Families with of People with Physical Disabilities Children Only (5 - 14 years)
Program Short-Term Success 
Children are offered a variety of activities each month.  Parents must sign up  their children for activities that they are interested in attending. 
 
Program Long-Term Success 
Youth have the opportunity to meet other children with similar disabilities.
Program Success Monitored By 
Parents and youth are asked for feedback on programs to gage interest.  Youth often request certain activities to be repeated for example: audio described theater performances.
Examples of Program Success 

The Youth Program was able to attend an audio described performance of Hairspray at the Wheelock Family Theatre. The youth were given headsets for audio description and brailled programs. After the show, the youth were able to meet some of the performers and ask them questions about what it was like to be an actor. The youth were able to leave with autographed programs and pictures with all of their favorite characters.


CEO/Executive Director/Board Comments

Two of the greatest challenges for the Lowell Association for the Blind (LAB) in providing services for the blind and visually impaired are keeping up with constantly changing technology and of course, transportation for clients that must rely on family or public transportation.    
 
 

Management


CEO/Executive Director Ms. Elizabeth M Cannon
CEO Term Start Nov 2000
CEO Email [email protected]
CEO Experience
Elizabeth Cannon has over 20 years of non-profit management experience. She is a graduate of UMass Lowell with a Bachelor of Science in Administration of Law and Justice and Franklin Pierce University with a Masters in Business Administration.   Before coming to LAB she worked at Community Teamwork, Inc. and Merrimack Valley Catholic Charities.
 
Elizabeth was elected the  President of the Non Profit Alliance of Greater Lowell in 2016 (having served as the Treasurer and Vice President) and is a member of the Regional Advisory Committee for the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind.  
 
Elizabeth joined the Massachusetts Nonprofit Network Board of Directors in 2016. 
Co-CEO --
Co-CEO Term Start --
Co-CEO Email --
Co-CEO Experience --

Former CEOs and Terms

Name Start End
-- -- --

Senior Staff

Name Title Experience/Biography
Ms. Monica Mullen Development Director  

Monica is a graduate of Ursuline College in Pepper Pike, Ohio. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in Behavioral Sciences. Before coming to LAB she worked for Honey Creek Mall in Terre Haute, Indiana as the Assistant General Manager of the shopping center for over 13 years. Monica is the Secretary of the Board of Directors for the Billerica Alliance, Board member of Billerica Access Television, volunteer for the Sunshine Gals and member of the Billerica Rotary Club.

Awards

Award Awarding Organization Year
Staff Person of the Year Dorothy Donovan Nonprofit Alliance of Greater Lowell 2017
Service Learning Community Partner Award University of Massachusetts Lowell 2014
Excellence In Communications Massachusetts Nonprofit Network 2013

Affiliations

Affiliation Year
-- --
Member of state association of nonprofits? Yes
Name of state association Massachusetts Nonprofit Network

External Assessments and Accreditations

External Assessment or Accreditation Year
-- --

Collaborations

The Lowell Association for the Blind has many collaborations including but not limited to: University of Massachusetts Lowell, Middlesex Community College, Perkins School for the Blind, Carroll Center for the Blind, Massachusetts Commission for the Blind and Talking Information Center and many nonprofits which are members of the Non Profit Alliance of Greater Lowell.

CEO/Executive Director/Board Comments

--

Foundation Comments

--

Staff Information

Number of Full Time Staff 1
Number of Part Time Staff 5
Number of Volunteers 21
Number of Contract Staff 0
Staff Retention Rate % 100%

Staff Demographics

Ethnicity African American/Black: 0
Asian American/Pacific Islander: 0
Caucasian: 5
Hispanic/Latino: 0
Native American/American Indian: 0
Other: 1
Other (if specified): --
Gender Female: 5
Male: 0
Not Specified 0

Plans & Policies

Organization has Fundraising Plan? Yes
Organization has Strategic Plan? No
Years Strategic Plan Considers 3
Management Succession Plan Under Development
Business Continuity of Operations Plan No
Organization Policies And Procedures Under Development
Nondiscrimination Policy Yes
Whistle Blower Policy Yes
Document Destruction Policy Yes
Directors and Officers Insurance Policy Yes
State Charitable Solicitations Permit Exempt
State Registration --

Risk Management Provisions

--

Reporting and Evaluations

Management Reports to Board? Yes
CEO Formal Evaluation and Frequency Yes Annually
Senior Management Formal Evaluation and Frequency Yes Annually
Non Management Formal Evaluation and Frequency Yes Annually

Governance


Board Chair Ms. Carolyn Gregoire
Board Chair Company Affiliation self employed
Board Chair Term June 2017 - May 2018
Board Co-Chair --
Board Co-Chair Company Affiliation --
Board Co-Chair Term -

Board Members

Name Company Affiliations Status
Ms Mary Barrett University of Lowell Voting
Ms Shauna Carroll Enterprise Bank Voting
Mr. Jim Dyment Whistler House Museum of Art Voting
Ms Deborah D. Finch University of Massachusetts Lowell Voting
Mrs Carolyn Gregoire Personal Trainer Voting
Ms. Deme Gys University of Mass Lowell Voting
Mr. David Hall Lowell General Hospital Voting
Mr Salmaan Kapadia Dakota Systems Voting
Mr. Michael Lally Lowell Cemetary Voting
Ms. Gloria Leahy retired NonVoting
Ms MaryRose Loring Lowell Five Voting
Mr Bruce Macaulay Winchester Hospital Voting
Ms. Leslie Moran retired Voting
Mr. Ed Perry client representative Voting
Ms Melanie St. Croix Lowell Five Savings Bank Voting
Ms. Bethanne Welch City of Lowell Voting

Constituent Board Members

Name Company Affiliations Status
Ed Perry retired Voting

Youth Board Members

Name Company Affiliations Status
-- -- --

Advisory Board Members

Name Company Affiliations Status
-- -- --

Board Demographics

Ethnicity African American/Black: 0
Asian American/Pacific Islander: 0
Caucasian: 15
Hispanic/Latino: 0
Native American/American Indian: 0
Other: 1
Other (if specified): --
Gender Female: 9
Male: 6
Not Specified 0

Board Information

Board Term Lengths 3
Board Term Limits 2
Board Meeting Attendance % 63%
Written Board Selection Criteria No
Written Conflict Of Interest Policy Yes
Percentage of Monetary Contributions 90%
Percentage of In-Kind Contributions 100%
Constituency Includes Client Representation Yes

Standing Committees

  • Executive

CEO/Executive Director/Board Comments

The Lowell Association for the Blind Board of Directors is an active group of professionals from the Greater Lowell area.  Board members regularly use their areas of expertise to assist with the with the operations of the organizations.  Board members are expected to attend Board meetings and assist with fundraising events.

Foundation Comments

--

Financials


Revenue vs. Expense ($000s)

Expense Breakdown 2016 (%)

Expense Breakdown 2015 (%)

Expense Breakdown 2014 (%)

Prior Three Years Total Revenue and Expense Totals

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Total Revenue $249,292 $149,592 $281,381
Total Expenses $314,661 $273,269 $287,542

Prior Three Years Revenue Sources

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Foundation and
Corporation Contributions
$46,000 $49,400 $31,460
Government Contributions $0 $0 $0
    Federal -- -- --
    State -- -- --
    Local -- -- --
    Unspecified -- -- --
Individual Contributions $17,704 $6,666 $6,191
Indirect Public Support $343 $9,744 $53,293
Earned Revenue $76,003 $71,127 $101,772
Investment Income, Net of Losses $60,122 $-29,316 $48,677
Membership Dues -- -- --
Special Events $49,120 $41,971 $39,988
Revenue In-Kind -- -- --
Other -- -- --

Prior Three Years Expense Allocations

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Program Expense $218,846 $193,729 $207,914
Administration Expense $77,519 $67,187 $66,794
Fundraising Expense $18,296 $12,353 $12,834
Payments to Affiliates -- -- --
Total Revenue/Total Expenses 0.79 0.55 0.98
Program Expense/Total Expenses 70% 71% 72%
Fundraising Expense/Contributed Revenue 16% 11% 10%

Prior Three Years Assets and Liabilities

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Total Assets $951,111 $1,015,939 $1,139,643
Current Assets $951,111 $1,015,939 $1,139,382
Long-Term Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Current Liabilities $541 $0 $27
Total Net Assets $950,570 $1,015,939 $1,139,616

Prior Three Years Top Three Funding Sources

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
1st (Source and Amount) -- --
-- --
-- --
2nd (Source and Amount) -- --
-- --
-- --
3rd (Source and Amount) -- --
-- --
-- --

Financial Planning

Endowment Value $6,823.00
Spending Policy N/A
Percentage(If selected) --
Credit Line No
Reserve Fund Yes
How many months does reserve cover? 18.00

Capital Campaign

Are you currently in a Capital Campaign? No
Capital Campaign Purpose --
Campaign Goal --
Capital Campaign Dates -
Capital Campaign Raised-to-Date Amount --
Capital Campaign Anticipated in Next 5 Years? --

Short Term Solvency

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Current Ratio: Current Assets/Current Liabilities 1,758.06 -- 42,199.33

Long Term Solvency

Fiscal Year 2016 2015 2014
Long-term Liabilities/Total Assets 0% 0% 0%

CEO/Executive Director/Board Comments

The Board carefully monitors the income and expenses of the organization at each meeting.  LAB was founded in 1923 and has operated on a continual bases with support from many sources.   

Foundation Comments

Financial summary data in the charts and graphs above are per the organization's Reviewed financials.

Documents


Other Documents

No Other Documents currently available.

Impact

The Impact tab is a section on the Giving Common added in October 2013; as such the majority of nonprofits have not yet had the chance to complete this voluntary section. The purpose of the Impact section is to ask five deceptively simple questions that require reflection and promote communication about what really matters – results. The goal is to encourage strategic thinking about how a nonprofit will achieve its goals. The following Impact questions are being completed by nonprofits slowly, thoughtfully and at the right time for their respective organizations to ensure the most accurate information possible.


1. What is your organization aiming to accomplish?

The Lowell Association for the Blind (LAB) is a community based nonprofit organization serving the needs of the blind/visually impaired of the Merrimack Valley. The mission of LAB is to provide services to ensure people living with blind and low vision have the opportunities to live, work and socialize in our community as well as to educate and inform the public of the needs of the blind/visually impaired.

 


2. What are your strategies for making this happen?

To make our mission a reality LAB leads by offering services that will fit the needs of the blind/visually impaired. 

In addition LAB’s mission is to educate the public to the needs of the blind. LAB does this through outreach events and our new monthly newsletter that features article of interest focusing on the blind community. The newsletter won an Excellence in Communications Award from the Massachusetts Nonprofit Network in 2013 and LAB won the Community Partner Award from UMass Lowell for working with students.

 


3. What are your organization’s capabilities for doing this?

The Lowell Association for the Blind has been providing service for the blind/visually impaired since 1923. The Lowell Association for the Blind office is centrally located in downtown Lowell with easy access to public transportation. The facility is handicapped accessible with space for group meeting and training space as well as a state of the art radio studio. LAB has a strong financial support with funding for program and services with state and local government, corporations, foundations and individuals.   LAB also has an active Board of Directors and a large group of dedicated volunteers. 



4. How will your organization know if you are making progress?

LAB continuously measures and monitors the progress of all of our programs and services. We know we are making our mission a reality with feedback:

From a Mother of two boys in LAB’s Youth Program:

 “They benefit from the interaction they receive from other children whom are blind. It gives the boys an opportunity to teach others and learn from peers who are experiencing the same difficulties they may be facing.”

From an Adult Program participant:

“As I lose more vision, doing paperwork becomes more of a challenge. It’s very comforting to know that LAB will provide such a wonderful service to its legally blind clients.”

LAB recently loaned a CC TV (technology that magnifies printed materials)  to a client who was struggling to read and remain independent.  Her daughter came in to pick up a new magnifier for her Mom.  When we inquired how her Mom was doing with the new equipment.  Her response was "life changing!"   

 


5. What have and haven’t you accomplished so far?

LAB is a leader in the nonprofit community in the Greater Lowell area. LAB is looked to locally as a resource for businesses and organizations on accessibility issues. In recent years, LAB has developed and implemented unique programming to meet the needs of the blind/visually impaired such as the Visually Impaired Partners (VIP) a sight based mentoring program where blind adults mentor blind children. 

 

 

The greatest challenges for meeting the needs of the blind and visually impaired are: 

  • Rates of blindness are expected to double by 2020. Every seven minutes, someone in the United States loses his/her sight. Around the world, an adult goes blind every 5 seconds and a child goes blind every minute.

  • Public transportation is limited and often difficult to maneuver for the blind/visually impaired. LAB works closely with clients to help them navigate learn to navigate these systems. 

  • In our society, we rely on computers, phones and a variety of devices to remain independent and communicate with friends, family and for business. These devices are not always accessible for the blind/visually impaired. Our greatest challenge in assisting the blind and visually impaired is to be able to keep up with the fast changing and high priced accessible technology and training to use that technology that can vary with each person’s eye condition.